Marriage – Postnuptial Agreements – Wisconsin
Chapter 766, 766.01(12) Definitions.
In this chapter:
(12) “Marital property agreement” means an agreement that complies with s. 766.58, 766.585, 766.587, 766.588 or 766.589. The term does not include the financial disclosure form under s. 766.588 (9) or 766.589 (10).
766.15 Responsibility between spouses.
(1) Each spouse shall act in good faith with respect to the other spouse in matters involving marital property or other property of the other spouse. This obligation may not be varied by a marital property agreement.
(2) Management and control by a spouse of that spouse’s property that is not marital property in a manner that limits, diminishes or fails to produce income from that property does not violate sub. (1).
766.17 Variation by marital property agreement.
(1) Except as provided in ss. 766.15, 766.55 (4m), 766.57 (3) and 766.58 (2), a marital property agreement may vary the effect of this chapter.
(2) Section 859.18 (6) governs the effect of a marital property agreement upon property available for satisfaction of obligations after the death of a spouse.
766.58 Marital property agreements.
(1) A marital property agreement shall be a document signed by both spouses. Only the spouses may be parties to a marital property agreement. A marital property agreement is enforceable without consideration.
(2) A marital property agreement may not adversely affect the right of a child to support.
(3) Except as provided in ss. 766.15, 766.55 (4m), 766.57 (3) and 859.18 (6), and in sub. (2), in a marital property agreement spouses may agree with respect to any of the following:
(a) Rights in and obligations with respect to any of either or both spouses’ property whenever and wherever acquired or located.
(b) Management and control of any of either or both spouses’ property.
(c) Disposition of any of either or both spouses’ property upon dissolution or death or upon the occurrence or nonoccurrence of any other event.
(d) Modification or elimination of spousal support, except as provided in sub. (9).
(e) Making a will, trust or other arrangement to carry out the marital property agreement.
(f) Providing that upon the death of either spouse any of either or both spouses’ property, including after-acquired property, passes without probate to a designated person, trust or other entity by nontestamentary disposition. Any such provision in a marital property agreement is revoked upon dissolution of the marriage as provided in s. 767.375 (1). If a marital property agreement provides for the nontestamentary disposition of property, without probate, at the death of the 2nd spouse, at any time after the death of the first spouse the surviving spouse may amend the marital property agreement with regard to property to be disposed of at his or her death unless the marital property agreement expressly provides otherwise and except to the extent property is held in a trust expressly established under the marital property agreement.
(g) Choice of law governing construction of the marital property agreement.
(h) Any other matter affecting either or both spouses’ property not in violation of public policy or a statute imposing a criminal penalty.
(3m) Chapter 854 applies to transfers at death under a marital property agreement.
(4) A marital property agreement may be amended or revoked only by a later marital property agreement.
(5) Persons intending to marry each other may enter into a marital property agreement as if married, but the marital property agreement becomes effective only upon their marriage.
(6) A marital property agreement executed before or during marriage is not enforceable if the spouse against whom enforcement is sought proves any of the following:
(a) The marital property agreement was unconscionable when made.
(b) That spouse did not execute the marital property agreement voluntarily.
(c) Before execution of the marital property agreement, that spouse:
1. Did not receive fair and reasonable disclosure, under the circumstances, of the other spouse’s property or financial obligations; and
2. Did not have notice of the other spouse’s property or financial obligations.
(7)(a) Unless the marital property agreement expressly provides otherwise, a marital property agreement that classifies a deferred employment benefit plan or an individual retirement account as marital property does not affect the operation of s. 766.62 (5).
(b) Unless the marital property agreement expressly provides otherwise, marital property agreement that classifies as marital property the noninsured spouse’s interest in a policy that designates the other spouse as the owner and insured does not affect the operation of s. 766.61 (7). In this paragraph, “owner” has the meaning given in s. 766.61 (1) (a) and “policy” has the meaning given in s. 766.61 (1) (c).
(8) The issue of whether a marital property agreement is unconscionable is for the court to decide as a matter of law. In the event that legal counsel is retained in connection with a marital property agreement the fact that both parties are represented by one counsel or that one party is represented by counsel and the other party is not represented by counsel does not by itself make a marital property agreement unconscionable or otherwise affect its enforceability.
(9)(a) Modification or elimination of spousal support during the marriage may not result in a spouse having less than necessary and adequate support, taking into consideration all sources of support.
(b) If a marital property agreement modifies or eliminates spousal support so as to make one spouse eligible for public assistance at the time of dissolution of the marriage or termination of the marriage by death, the court may require the other spouse or the other spouse’s estate to provide support necessary to avoid that eligibility, notwithstanding the marital property agreement.
(10) If the spouses agree in writing to arbitrate any controversies arising under this chapter or a marital property agreement, the arbitration agreement is enforceable under ch. 788.
(11) Married persons or persons intending to marry each other may record a marital property agreement in the county register of deeds office under s. 59.43 (1) (r).
(12)(a) A provision of a document signed before the determination date by spouses or unmarried persons who subsequently married each other, which provision affects the property of either of them and is enforceable by either of them without reference to this chapter, is not affected by this chapter except as provided otherwise in a marital property agreement made after the determination date.
(b) If a provision or an amendment to a provision in a document described under par. (a) is intended to negate, apply or modify any right or obligation which may be acquired under 1983 Wisconsin Act 186, 1985 Wisconsin Act 37, or a community property system, the provision or amendment is enforceable after the determination date if the document was enforceable when executed or, if it is executed after April 4, 1984, either was enforceable when executed or would be enforceable if it were executed after the determination date.
(c) This subsection does not affect a marital property agreement executed under s. 766.585.
(13)(a) With respect to a provision of a marital property agreement that is effective upon or after dissolution of the marriage or termination of the marriage by death, any statute of limitations applicable to enforcement of the provision is tolled until dissolution of the marriage or termination of the marriage by death, respectively.
(b) After the death of a spouse, no action concerning a marital property agreement may be brought later than 6 months after the inventory is filed under s. 858.01. If an amended inventory is filed, the action may be brought within 6 months after the filing of the amended inventory if the action relates to information contained in the amended inventory that was not contained in a previous inventory.
(c) The court may extend the 6-month period under par. (b) for cause if a motion for extension is made within the applicable 6-month period.
(14) Limitations on the effect of marital property agreements for state income tax purposes are set forth in ch. 71.
766.585 Marital property agreements before determination date.
(1) After April 4, 1984, and before their determination date, spouses or unmarried persons who subsequently marry each other may execute a marital property agreement under s. 766.58, which is intended to apply only after their determination date, to the same extent that persons may execute a marital property agreement under s. 766.58 after their determination date. The marital property agreement does not apply before the persons’ determination date. Upon application, the marital property agreement has the same effect as if executed after the persons’ determination date.
(2) Notwithstanding the execution of the marital property agreement before the persons’ determination date and notwithstanding the January 1, 1986, effective date of 1983 Wisconsin Act 186 and 1985 Wisconsin Act 37, the law in effect on the date when the marital property agreement applies, not on the date of execution of the marital property agreement, applies to the execution and enforceability or other legal effect of the marital property agreement.
(3) A document executed by spouses or unmarried persons who subsequently marry each other which is intended to apply in whole or in part before their determination date is governed by s. 766.58 (12).
766.97 Equal rights; common law disabilities.
(1) Women and men have the same rights and privileges under the law in the exercise of suffrage, freedom of contract, choice of residence, jury service, holding office, holding and conveying property, care and custody of children and in all other respects. The various courts and executive and administrative officers shall construe the statutes so that words importing one gender extend and may be applied to either gender consistent with the manifest intent of the legislature. The courts and executive and administrative officers shall make all necessary rules and provisions to carry out the intent and purpose of this subsection.
(2) Nothing in this chapter revives the common law disabilities on a woman’s right to own, manage, inherit, transfer or receive gifts of property in her own name, to enter into contracts in her own name or to institute civil actions in her own name. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter and in other sections of the statutes controlling marital property or property of spouses that is not marital property, either spouse has the right to own and exclusively manage his or her property that is not marital property, enter into contracts with 3rd parties or with his or her spouse, institute and defend civil actions in his or her name and maintain an action against his or her spouse for damages resulting from that spouse’s intentional act or negligence.
(3) The common law rights of a spouse to compel the domestic and sexual services of the other spouse are abolished. Nothing in this subsection affects a spouse’s common law right to consortium or society and companionship.
Chapter 767, Subchapter IV, 767.375 Effect on transfers at death.
(1) Revocation of death provisions in marital property agreement. Unless the judgment provides otherwise, a judgment of annulment, divorce or legal separation revokes a provision in a marital property agreement under s. 766.58 that provides for any of the following:
(a) That, upon the death of either spouse, any of either or both spouses’ property, including after-acquired property, passes without probate to a designated person, trust or other entity by nontestamentary disposition.
(b) That one or both spouses will make a particular disposition in a will or other governing instrument, as defined in s. 854.01 (2).
(2) Revocation of revocable transfers at death. Unless sub. (1) applies, revocation of revocable transfers at death by a former spouse to the other former spouse, or to relatives of the other former spouse, under an instrument executed before the judgment of annulment, divorce or legal separation is governed by s. 854.15.
Chapter 705, Subchapter II, 705.10 Nonprobate transfers on death.
(1) A provision for a nonprobate transfer on death in an insurance policy, contract of employment, bond, mortgage, promissory note, certificated or uncertificated security, account agreement, custodial agreement, deposit agreement, compensation plan, pension plan, individual retirement plan, employee benefit plan, trust, conveyance, deed of gift, marital property agreement, or other written instrument of a similar nature is nontestamentary. This subsection governs a written provision that:
(a) Money or other benefits due, controlled by or owned by a decedent before death must be paid after the decedent’s death to a person whom the decedent designates either in the instrument or in a separate writing, including a will executed either before or at the same time as the instrument, or later;
(b) Money due or to become due under the instrument ceases to be payable in the event of death of the promisee or the promisor before payment or demand; or
(c) Any property controlled by or owned by the decedent before death which is the subject of the instrument passes to a person whom the decedent designates either in the instrument or in a separate writing, including a will executed either before or at the same time as the instrument, or later.
(2) This section does not limit rights of creditors under other laws of this state.
(3) Chapter 854 applies to transfers at death under this section.
(4) A transfer under this section does not require confirmation in any procedure under s. 867.01, 867.02, or 867.03 or ch. 856 or 865. A transfer under this section may be confirmed under s. 867.046 (1m) or (2).
Chapter 861, Subchapter II, 861.10 Waiver of right to elect; failure to elect.
(1) Right to elect may be waived. The right to elect a deferred marital property elective share amount may be waived by the surviving spouse in whole or in part. The waiver may take place before or after marriage. The waiver must be contained in a marital property agreement that is enforceable under s. 766.58 or in a signed document filed with a court described in s. 861.08 (1) (a) after the decedent’s death.
(2) Waiver of “all rights”. Unless the waiver provides otherwise, a waiver of “all rights,” or equivalent language, in the property or estate of a present or prospective spouse, or in a complete property settlement entered into because of separation or divorce, is a waiver of all rights in the deferred marital property elective share amount.
(3) Failure to elect. Failure of a surviving spouse to elect is not a transfer of property and is not a gift from the surviving spouse to the decedent spouse’s probate estate or to the beneficiaries of other transfers.
Disclaimer: This law summary is not legal advice. If you are not an attorney, you should consult an attorney about serious legal matters.